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Zhaoling Mausoleum of Shenyang

Zhaoling Mausoleum widely called North Mausoleum, is located in north side of Shenyang City. The second Pioneering Emperor of Qing Dynasty, Emperor Taizhong and Empress Xiaoduan were all buried here. In the area of Mausoleum, a lot of old trees are well preserved and the traditional buildings are glorious. The special environment fully shows the magnificence of this feudalistic emperors’ mausoleum. The construction of large-scale mausoleum starts from 1643 and ends in 1651. During the reign of Emperor Kangxi, Emperor Qianlong and Emperor Jiaqing ordered to extend and rebuild the mausoleum. In other words, this mausoleum is the accumulated building complex. It both preserves the special building features before Qing Dynasty founded and the royal needs of mausoleum building.

 

The gate of Zhaoling Mausoleum



The Zhaoling Mausoleum is one of the Three Shengjing Mausoleums (the Yongling Mausoleum, the Fuling Mausoleum and the Zhaoling Mausoleum). It has the largest scale among the three mausoleums. The mausoleum covers an area of 4.5 million square meters. The layout of the mausoleum can be divided into three parts. From the Stele of Dismounting to the Zhenghong Gate is the first part. The epigraph of all grades of officials under Prince please dismount here was engraved in the Stele of Dismounting, in Chinese, Manchu, Mongolian, Hui, and Tibetan languages. The east and west sides of the stele stand stone lions, and ornamental columns. To the north, passing the three-hole stone bridge, one can see a stone pailou that features four masts, three layers and a single eave, imitating the wooden dougong (a system of brackets in Chinese building; wooden square blocks inserted between the top of a column and a crossbeam); eight preciousness and flying dragons are engraved on the banister, and the craftsmanship is fine and unsurpassed. Five couples of stone lions are at the foot of the pole. The second part is from the Zhenghong gate to the square city. Inside the Zhenghong gate, it is a long divine path. From the south to the north, 6 couples of stones are carved along the divine path. They are lion,Xiezhi(legendary animal credited with ability to distinguish between right and wrong, virtue and evil), kylin, horse, camel and elephant, respectively. Among them, the stone horses, named Big White, Small White, are said to be molded on the two horses ridden by Abahai before his death. On the north of the stone status there is a stele building. The stele is 5 meters in height, and 100,000 Jin (50,000 kg) in weight. The third part consists of the Square Town, the Crescent Town, and the Treasure Town, and the three towns are connected together. And they are the main structures inside the mausoleum. In the middle of the southern town is the Longsi Gate, and the Long'en Palace is in the straight north. The palace stands tall and upright on the boule like pedestal. In the middle of the yellow-colored glazed tile peak, there are three colored glazed pearls, and seawater cloud dragon basso-relievo is on the imperial path in the middle of the palace. The carving is elaborate. The east and the west side halls are in front of the palace. There are turrets in the four corners of the Square town. Behind it is the Daming Building, with the stone stele of The Mausoleum of Emperor Tai Zong inside the building. The northern part of the Square Town is closely connected with the Crescent Town and the round Treasure Town. In the middle of the treasure town is the protuberant treasure peaking, and below it is the ground palace. Rockeries piled behind the spire were named Longye Mountain in the 8thyear (1651) of the Shunzhi reign.

After the foundation of New China, Zhaoling Mausoleum together with other mass of historic and cultural relics is under the national-level care and protection. In 1982, Zhaoling Mausoleum was listed into the List of Cultural and Historical Relics under the national level protection.

 

 

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