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Chinese Literature History Before Tang Dynasty

Jiangan-style Literature 
Cao Cao Frankly Chinese literature officially was independent of Confucianism and other doctrine works in Wei Dynasty. The representatives were Cao Cao, and his two sons. Firstly let us have an analysis on Cao Cao. Cao Cao was a famous militarist and literator. He learnt the poem directly from the time before him, that is Yuefu Poem (Yuefu was once an official sector specially operating on the collection of folk songs and then composed them into the formal music. Via these folk songs we can learn a lot on social reality and voices of grassroots, afterward, Yuefu poetry became a poem style for singing with music). Cao Cao used to quote other old people’s famous sentence and then naturally turned them to be his own. Cao Cao is the opener and the founder of Chinese Water-Mountain Poem and he was also the leader of Chinese literature community at that time. Around him there is a large literator group composed of his sons and Three Great Poets. Besides he was the learner of Bixin which is from Chinese the Book of Songs. This is a great man who opened a trend from Yuefu Poem to Literary Poem. His Son Cao Pi was also a famous poet. He created Seven-Character Poem named Yangexing. He was good at illustrating the feeling of isolated women and so on. He also opened the air of literator-gathering. His youngest son, Cao Zhi was the most outstanding poet at that time. The literature analyst Zhong Rong highly commented him that he was ambitious and far-sighted and his words are delicate and refined. Generally his literary experiences could be divided into two parts. The former showed his positive life attitude and life-long pursuit, and the latter released his sorrow and disappointment. He depicted his own and his friends unlucky experience. His greatest contribution to Chinese literature is his creativity of Chinese Five-Character Poem. He also wrote many immortal poems and reclusion poems. He had a wide influence in Chinese society because of his unfortunate experience, his devotion to Chinese literature development, and his incomparable talents. The other famous representatives are Wang Can and Liu Zheng. They opened the literature style named in Chinese Pinyin: Jianan Fenggu. In sum, at this time, the poets had the positive and open-minded heart and attitude. And their high political idea, meanwhile their feeling on the short life and the strong personality has been shown in the poem, the time tragic feeling is also shown. 

Ruanji Zhengshi-Style Literature
As the Wei-State authorities were replaced by Sima Family, the society became unstable. The privilege holders began the large-scale death penalty and punishment to eliminate the dissidents. Many people were killed or became unvoiced. This was the time of Zhengshi-style Literature. At this time the literature representatives are Zhulinqixian (Seven Elites in Bamboos), Ruan Ji and Ji Kang were both two outstanding writers. They wrote many poems with the sentiments of indirect way, and reading their poems, the readers needed to have a well thought to understand what his meaning. Ruanji’s representative poem is Yonghuai, which was symbolization of Chinese political lyrics, which, to some extent released the writer’s worry, sorrow and generousness.

Taikang-Style Literature
In the West Jin Dynasty, the society became relatively secure. And many people again pursued in life goal. They tried to be emphasized by the authorities via their articles and poems. Hence at this time, the artistic from of poem was largely improved, and the word-usage and depiction usage were both altered. The most outstanding characteristic was complexity. But during this time they most experienced the setbacks and proud at the same time. Most of their poems they wrote just for showing off their talents. The representatives were Lu Ji, Lu Yun, Pan Yue, Zuo Si, Zhangxie and so on. Simplicity to Decoration and Complication; Freedom to Couplet; Zuo Si and Liu Kun were both the important poets here. Zuosi was highly commented and his style was said to be Zuosifengli. He was originally famous for its Sandufu but eventually famous for its eight poems on History. In his poems fully shown the feeling of the anger on inequality and the appealing on behalf of the low-level people, and in his poems, he largely used the historical allusions to satire the reality, which is Dianyiyuan. Generally, his words not only belonged to this time but also re-shown the characteristics of Weijin Fenggu. Liu Kun was also a famous poet shown his generous and wide and broad heart, as well as the strong characteristics of Weijingfengu. At this time, another famous immortal poem writer named Guo Pu. He shown his dissatisfaction to the reality via writing the imaginary world of immortals.





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